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d:音阶, 琶音、 手指独立和提升手指的练习

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发表于 2011-1-24 00:08:36 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
d. Scales, Arpeggios, Finger Independence and Finger Lifting Exercisesd:音阶, 琶音、 手指独立和提升手指的练习
Scales and arpeggios must be practiced diligently. They are not in the class of mindless repetitive exercises because of the numerous necessary techniques that are most quickly acquired using them (such as thumb over, flat finger positions, feeling the keys, velocity, PSs, glissando motion, tone/color, how to reverse directions, supple wrist, etc.). Scales and arpeggios must be practiced HS; practicing them HT all the time will place them in the same category as Hanon.
音阶与琶音时必须努力练习。他们不是作为重复练习的中心是因为这是很快学习得到并应用例如拇指的手指位置,平指位置感知键盘、速度、PSs、滑奏法、音色,如何反转,灵活的手腕关节等等。音阶和琶音必须练习HS;一直实践练习他们HT把他们置于相同的类别像哈农。Two exceptions to this “no HT rule” are: (A) when you are using them for warm-ups (before recitals, etc.), and (B) when practicing to make sure that the two hands can be synchronized accurately. Learning to play them well is very difficult and you will certainly need PS, see sections III.4.b and III.5 for more details.对于以上所诉没有HT规则的两个例外情况是(a)当你在钢琴演奏会之前热身等等。和(b)当两手同时同步准确弹奏的时候。学好它们是相当困难的,你将正确无疑的需要PSs,更多详细的资料请参照III.4.b。手指独立性练习的提升(参见以下所诉)性练习是第一所有五指下压例如从CGRH执行。然后发挥每根手指的三到五倍CCCCDDDDEEEEFFFFGGGG 虽然用一根手指按,其他手指必须保持。不要按的引起紧张因而导致快速疲劳的坚实的手指。此外,有一个很必要的因素就是你不要想去培养很多慢的肌肉。全部每个按键都要完美的下去,虽然手指The finger independence and lifting (see below) exercises are performed by first pressing all five fingers down, e.g., from C to G using the RH. Then play each finger three to five times: CCCCDDDDEEEEFFFFGGGG. While one finger is playing, the others must be . Do not press down firmly as this is a form of stress, and will cause fatigue very quickly. Also, you don’t want to grow any more slow muscles than is necessary. All the depressed keys must be completely down, but the fingers are resting on them  是支撑在唯一有足够的向下的力量弹下去的琴键上。  
with only enough downward force to keep the keys down. 通过万有引力的自由重量弹奏就足够了。The gravitational weight of the hand should be enough. 初学者可能会发现这中练习在刚开始的时候是困难的,因为尤其是它们疲劳时候,在最适宜的位置和抬起来时没有一根手指趋向于塌下去。那么如果塌下去试着用一点时间去转变成其他手指或离开琴键;Beginners may find this exercise difficult in the beginning because the non-playing fingers tend to collapse from their optimum positions or lift involuntarily, especially if they begin to tire. If they tend to collapse, try a few times and then switch hands or quit; 不要保持坍塌的位置。然后再休息以后再试着弹。do not keep practicing in the collapsed position. Then try again after a rest. 还有就是这种变化的练习是可以伸展分散到一个八度的音阶练习的。One variation of this exercise is to spread out the notes over an octave.这种型式的练习是在李斯特时期应用的 This type of exercise was already in use during F. Liszt’s time (Moscheles). They should be done using the curled as well as all the flat finger positions.他们用卷曲的手指也用平直的手指(像霍洛维茨)进行练习
For the finger independence exercise, try to increase the speed. Note the similarity to PS exercise #1, section (b). For general technique development, exercise #1 is superior to this one. The main objective of exercise #1 was speed; the emphasis here is different -- it is for finger independence.
对于手指独立性练习,试着提高速度。要注意的就是PS练习#1,第(b)。对于全面的技术发展,练习#1是比这个更加有效。一个主要的对于#1的目的是速度,而速度这个重点在这里是非常困难的——对于手指独立性训练。Some piano teachers recommend doing this exercise once during every practice session, once you can play it satisfactorily. Until you can play it satisfactorily, you may want to practice it several times at every practice session. Practicing it many times at once and then neglecting it in subsequent sessions will not work. 在每个练习实践的期间一些钢琴教师们推荐做这种练习,直到你能弹它们到满意为止。在你弹奏它满意之前,在练习的学期中你可能想去练习它几次,于是你就会忽略它在随后的学期里无法工作。
All the practice methods and exercises discussed in this book deal mostly with the muscles used to press the key down (flexors). It is possible for those muscles to become far more developed than the ones used to lift the fingers (extensors), especially for those who practice loud all the time and never develop the art of playing fast, thus causing control problems. Eventually, the flexors can end up overpowering the extensors. Therefore, it is a good idea to exercise the relevant extensors by performing lifting exercises. The flat finger positions are valuable for exercising the extensors for lifting the fingers and, at the same time, relaxing the extensors near the fingertips. These two extensors use different muscles.
全部练习的方法和练习在这本书中很多涉及到的都是肌肉怎样按下琴键(屈肌肉)。比较抬高指头(伸肌),肌肉变得较大较远的发展可能性要高(第一种伸肌)。尤其对于那些一直大声练习和从来不发展快速练习的艺术,结果是导致控制的问题。最后屈肌肉以压倒性最终赢过伸肌。因此,通过履行抬高练习来练习有关伸肌的练习是个好主意。一个平指的位置是练习抬高手指的最好的选择,同时放松在指尖附近的伸肌。这两种伸肌练习都是用不同肌肉。
For finger lifting exercises, repeat the above exercise, but lift each finger as high as you can, quickly and immediately down. The motion should be as fast as you can, but slow enough that you have complete control; this is not a speed contest, you just have to avoid growing the slow muscles. Again, keep all the other fingers down with minimal pressure. As usual, it is important to reduce stress in the fingers that are not being lifted. Practice rapid relaxation immediately after a hard lift.
对于手指抬高练习,重复上述的练习,把每个手指抬起来越高越好,直到你不能再高为止,然后快速立即落下。 这个落下的手势越快越好直到你的极限,但是要慢慢的有充足的时间能让你可以完美控制;这是没有抬高速度比赛的,你正好就可以避免慢肌肉的增长。再次,保持其他手指最低压。跟往常一样,很重要的一点是减少手指不抬高的按键方法,练习正确的、放松的、立即的手指坚实的抬高后的动作。
Everyone has problems with lifting the 4th finger. There is a mistaken belief by many that we must be able to lift the 4th finger as high as all the others and therefore they expend an inordinate amount of effort trying to achieve this. Such efforts have been proven to be futile and even harmful. This is because the anatomy of the 4th finger does not allow it to be lifted beyond a certain point. The only requirement on the 4th finger is not to depress a key inadvertently, which can be meet with only a small amount of lift. Therefore you can play at all times with the 4th finger barely off the keys or even touching them. Practicing difficult passages with inordinate effort at lifting this finger higher can cause stress in fingers 3 and 5. It is more productive to learn to play with less stress as long as the 4th finger is not interfering in any way. The exercise for lifting the 4th finger independently is performed as follows. Press all fingers down, CDEFG, as before. Then play 1,4,1,4,1,4, . ., with the accent on 1 and lifting 4 as quickly and as high as you can. Then repeat with 2,4,2,4,2,4, . . . Then 3,4, then 5,4. You can also do this exercise with 4 on a black key.
每个人都有第4指头抬不高的问题,这里有一个错误的观念,就是第4指头一定能比其他指头更高,因此他们(指那些观念错误的人)会花费过度的许多的努力去尝试达成它。各种努力都被实验过了,被证明是有害的和无效的。这是因为在解剖学里第四指不能允许它抬高超过中指的高度既手指中心的高度。第四指的唯一的必要条件是不能漫不经心的压键盘,而且偶然会碰到唯一少量的抬高。因此你能一直用第四指弹仅仅离开键盘或者甚至贴键弹奏。练习困难的一节就是用过度的努力在于手指抬得很高能够来练习35指。这是很有益的练习,只要第四指不以任何形式来干预。那么练习抬高第4指的独立练习如下执行:全部指头按下琴键CDEFG和以前一样。然后按1414141414.。。。。强调1和抬高4指以越快越好的速度、越高越好的你能行的极限速度弹奏。然后重复2,4,2,4,。。。然后3,4,然后5,4,你同样可以在黑键上做同样4指的练习。
Both the finger independence and lifting exercises can be performed without a piano, on any flat surface. This is the best time to practice relaxing the extensor muscles of the last two phalanges (the nail phalange and middle phalange) of fingers 2 to 5; see section III.4.b for more details. During the entire exercise, those two phalanges for all the fingers should be completely relaxed, even for the finger being lifted.
执行这些手指独立性练习和抬高指练习都可以脱离钢琴,在任何的平面。这是一个好机会练习放松练习最后两个指骨的伸肌肉(钉指骨和中间指骨) 的手指 2 5 ;请参见 III.4.b 节更多详细资料。甚至对于抬高指头的时候,这两个指骨和整个手都要完成放松。
发表于 2011-1-24 08:13:09 | 显示全部楼层
我去,这么大的字,头晕
发表于 2011-1-24 22:44:54 | 显示全部楼层
大字天书……
发表于 2011-1-24 23:39:58 | 显示全部楼层
很好很好~
就是……字好大= =
发表于 2011-1-25 00:04:40 | 显示全部楼层
楼主用毛笔打的字哈
发表于 2011-1-25 00:50:40 | 显示全部楼层
这字...楼主,重新排个版吧...
发表于 2011-1-25 01:45:01 | 显示全部楼层
好大的字。。。
发表于 2011-1-25 05:58:23 | 显示全部楼层
是否可协调把您的才智用于尚未翻译的章节,加快整体翻译进度?
谢谢。
发表于 2011-1-25 08:25:24 | 显示全部楼层
有多处 还不够 "信" 与 "达"。
发表于 2011-1-25 14:13:53 | 显示全部楼层
老外的东西值得好好研究

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